Scroll down for an in depth fact sheet in English and German.
Main facts around Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
In 1805 Azerbaijani Karabakh khanate became part of Russian Empire.
From 1828 to 1911 alone, more than 1,000,000 Armenians were resettled in the South Caucasus (including Azerbaijani Irevan and Karabakh region) by Russia from Iran and Turkey.
See I. Shopen, Historical monument of the status of the Armenian oblast in the period of its annexation to the Russian Empire (Saint-Petersburg: Publishing House of the Emperor’s Academy of Sciences, 1852), pp. 636, 639-641, 706;
See also N. Shavrov, A new challenge to the Russian issue in Transcaucasia: Upcoming sale of Mughan to foreigners (Saint-Petersburg: Publishing House of the Editorial Board of the Ministry of Finance Periodicals, 1911), pp. 59-60.
April 1919 the Allied Powers recognized Karabakh under Azerbaijan Democratic Republic’s jurisdiction.
See To the History of Formation of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan SSR. 1918-1925: Documents and Materials (Baku: Azerneshr, 1989), pp. 23-25.
See also Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), pp. 75-76.
5 July 1921 the Caucasian Bureau decided to retain Nagorno-Karabakh within the Azerbaijan SSR as autonomy region.
See To the History of Formation of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan SSR. 1918-1925: Documents and Materials, p. 92.
The present-day stage of the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan began at the end of 1987 with the former making overt territorial claims on Nagorno-Karabakh and with attacks on Azerbaijanis, both in the autonomous oblast and Armenia itself.
Thomas de Waal, 2013, op. cit., pp. 17-20
In 1989, 187,770 people lived in Nagorno-Karabakh, of which 40,320 were Azerbaijani (21.5% of the total population).
Итоги всесоюзной переписи населения. Распределение населения по национальностям и родному языку. Москва 1989. С.3-89
The first armed attack by Armenia against the Azerbaijan after independence – an attack in which organized military formations and armoured vehicles operated against Azerbaijani targets – occurred in February 1992, when the town of Khojaly in the Republic of Azerbaijan was notoriously overrun.
See T. de Waal, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. p. 170 (2003).
As confirmed by President Serzh Sargsyan to British researcher Thomas de Waal, Armenia deliberately targeted the town’s civilians, killing 613 people, of which 63 were children, 106 were women and 7 were elders; 8 families were completely wiped out.
See T. de Waal, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. p.172
See also The Times newspaper on 2 March 1992, Report from Khojaly by Anatol Lieven
See also Letter dated 26 February 2015 from the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office at Geneva addressed to the President of the Human Rights Council
Between 1988 to 1994 Armenia illegally occupied about 20 percent of internationally recognized territories of Azerbaijan including Nagorno Karabakh and seven adjacent districts, expelled hundreds of thousands of ethnic Azeris.
See “Nagorno-Karabakh: The Crisis in the Caucasus”, 2005, Council for Foreign Relations, www.cfr.org/publication/9148/nagornokarabakh.html.
See also Annex to the letter from the Permanent Representative of Azerbaijan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (Doc. A/64/475 S/2009/508, dated 30 September 2009)
In its resolution of 20 December 1993, the General Assembly of the United Nations noted with alarm “that the number of refugees and displaced persons in Azerbaijan has recently exceeded one million”.
See United Nations General Assembly resolution 48/114, entitled “Emergency international assistance to refugees and displaced persons in Azerbaijan”. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/48/a48r114.htm
Because Armenian forces continue to control Nagorno-Karabakh and six surrounding provinces that make up about 20 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory, the vast majority of the displaced [Azerbaijanis] cannot return to their home regions.”
World Refugee Survey 2001, country report on Azerbaijan.
Armenian attacks against areas within the Republic of Azerbaijan were resumed in 1993, eliciting a series of four Security Council resolutions and one General Assembly resolution.
UN Security Council resolution No. 822.
UN Security Council resolution No. 853.
UN Security Council resolution No. 874.
UN Security Council resolution No. 884.
On 12 May 1994 with the Bishkek Protocol a ceasefire was established.
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe resolution No. 1416 demanded “the withdrawal of Armenian forces from all occupied territories of Azerbaijan.”
In 2005, 99.7% of the population of 137,000 were registered as Armenian, with only six Azerbaijanis living in the territory.
Thomas de Waal, 2013, op.cit., p.326.
The Armenian policy for implanting ethnic Armenian settlers in the occupied territories has proceeded apace. Various incentives are provided for Armenians to settle in the territory in question, such as “free housing, social infrastructure, inexpensive or free utilities, low taxes, money and livestock”, as well as tax exemptions, newly built houses, plots of land, advantageous loans.
See International Crisis Group Report of 14 September 2005, op. cit., p. 7.
See also Ibid. See also United Nations document A/59/568, letter from the Permanent Representative of Azerbaijan to the United Nations dated 11 November 2004 including annex with enclosure, pp. 7-12.
OSCE fact-finding mission (“FFM”) in 2005 sought to analyse the situation of settlers in the occupied areas outside of Nagorno-Karabakh. It noted that “disparate settlement incentives traceable to the authorities within and between the various territories” existed.
Report of the OSCE fact-finding mission to the occupied territories of Azerbaijan surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh, 28 February 2005, United Nations document A/59/747-S/2005/187, p. 35.